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The bias of the researchers conducting the interviews and analyzing the data is another criticized aspect of qualitative designs that tarnishes the study’s rigor and validity. When conducting interviews, the researchers must be reflective. Reflectivity implies that the researcher is aware of their own opinions and beliefs and maintains intellectual honesty while conducting interviews, which is especially important given that they will be analyzing the data (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017; Polit & Beck, 2017). Intellectual honesty and reflexivity will improve the rigor and validity of a study. Because the scenario is designed to collect data on improvements for access to care, wait times, staff friendliness, and the likelihood of the facility being recommended to others, the interview must be semi-structured, with a list of questions asked of each participant but no prediction of responses (Polit & Beck, 2017). The guidelines would include creating an environment in which information can be freely discussed, questions are asked in a logical order, and the interviewer is attentive (Polit & Beck, 2017). The interviewer may also use probe questions to encourage participants to provide more detailed explanations. The following are some open-ended questions:

1. Could you please walk me through the process of making an appointment at the office?

2. How frequently do you get an appointment within the time frame you’ve requested?

3. When you arrive at the office, can you tell me how long you had to wait?

4. Can you tell me about your interactions with each member of the staff?

5. How would you tell your family or friends about our office?


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