The goal of this week’s research is to compare and contrast different data collection methods, specifically in terms of patient satisfaction and quality improvement methods. According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2017), there is a significant distinction between patient satisfaction and patient experience. When determining whether or not patients are satisfied with their care, it is not necessary to consider their overall experience. Variables can be analyzed and included or excluded from all patients’ care based on their experiences, allowing for consistency in quality and safety, as well as an improvement in overall patient satisfaction. The data to be collected will be used to determine the patient’s experience, which means that the data to be collected will be of the qualitative variety. I believe that a descriptive phenomenology qualitative design would be the most effective method of describing the patient’s experiences with health care services and facilities.
The patients of the suburban primary care center are the intended audience for this study. Because the organization is interested in learning about all of the patients’ points of view, they are essentially heterogeneous in nature, with no one patient’s experience being more important than the others. There are no criteria for inclusion or exclusion in this study. This maximum variation sampling method will ensure that there is sufficient diversity among the sample and that the results can be generalized as a result (Polit & Beck, 2017). This will determine the sample size that will be obtained from the facilities’ total population of 10,000 people, which will be determined by how information-rich the participants who are chosen are (Malterud, Siersma, & Guasora, 2016; Polit & Beck, 2017). Typically, data collection should occur concurrently with data analysis, which should take place at the same time as the data collection process. The sample size may be increased at this point if the researchers realize that certain significant aspects of the study have been left out, which will improve the validity of the study ( Malterud, Siersma, & Guasora, 2016). Another aspect to consider when selecting a sample is the method by which the sample will be chosen. The use of random sampling would be appropriate in this situation. A computer program that selects participants at random could be used to determine whether or not they should be included in the study. This will improve the rigor of qualitative designs because non-random sampling has been criticized for selecting bias participants who will have similar or desired opinions, and this will address that criticism (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017).
Compilation of Information
Another element of qualitative designs that has been criticized for impairing the rigor and validity of the studies is the bias of the researchers who conduct the interviews and analyze the data in the studies. When conducting interviews, the researchers must be able to reflect on their actions. Knowing one’s own opinions and beliefs and maintaining intellectual honesty while conducting interviews is a sign of reflexivity, which is important because the researcher will be the one who is going to analyze the data (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017; Polit & Beck, 2017). The rigor and validity of a study will be improved if the researchers are intellectually honest and reflective. In order to gather information about improvements in access to care, wait times, staff friendliness, and the likelihood of recommending the facility to others, the interview must be semi-structured, with a list of questions that will be asked of each participant and no expectation of what they will say (Polit & Beck, 2017). A few of the guidelines would be to create an environment in which information can be discussed freely, to ask questions in a logical sequence, and to ensure that the interviewer is paying attention (Polit & Beck, 2017). In addition, the interviewer may use probe questions to encourage participants to provide more detailed explanations of their responses to the probe questions. The following are examples of open-ended questions:
1. Can you walk me through the process of scheduling an appointment at the office?
How frequently are you able to schedule an appointment within the time frame you have specified?
3. When you arrive at the office, can you tell me how long you expect to be waiting?
4. Can you tell me about your interactions with each member of the staff?
5. What aspects of our office would you tell your family or friends about?
AHRQ stands for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2017). What exactly is the patient experience? [online] Patients’ experiences are available at: https://www.ahrq.gov/cahps/about-cahps/patient-exp…
Gray, J. R., Grove, S. K., and Sutherland, S. (in press). Gray, J. R., Grove, S. K., and Sutherland, S. (2017). Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence are all part of the practice of nursing research (8th ed.). Elsevier Science Publishers, St. Louis, MO.
Malterud, K., Siersma, V. D., Guassora, A. D., & Siersma, V. D. (2016). When conducting qualitative interviews, the sample size should be determined by the amount of information available. Qualitative health research, volume 26, number 13, pages 1753-1760.
Polit, D. F., and Beck, C. T. (in press) (2017). Nursing research is the process of generating and evaluating evidence to be used in nursing practice (10th ed.). Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
O. C. Robinson, O. C. Robinson, O. C. (2014). Sampling in qualitative research based on interviews: A theoretical and practical guide is available online. Qualitative research in psychology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 25–41 (2001). https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1080/147…