1. Give a detailed account of the theorist’s background and how their experiences influenced the theory’s development.

2. Look up important references to the theorist’s original and/or current work, as well as other authors who have written on the theory.

3. Determine the phenomenon of concern or the challenges that the theory addresses.

Explain whether the theory is based on deductive, inductive, or retroductive reasoning. Provide evidence to back up your claim.

1. Describe the theory’s core concepts and how they are defined. (both theoretically and practically) Is the author’s usage of concepts and other terms in the theory consistent?

2. Determine whether the terms are defined implicitly or explicitly.

3. Examine the connections (propositions) between the primary ideas.


1. Determine the theory’s explicit and implicit assumptions (values/beliefs). What are the assumptions that the theory is based on?

2. Check to see if the theory includes an explanation of the nursing metaparadigm’s four concepts. If that’s the case, how does the theory explain them? What components of the theory do you think are relevant to the theory if the metapardigm isn’t explained?

3. Talk about how clear the theory is.

Was it clear and consistent in its presentation?