Questions that thoroughly need to be answered in the papers:
A. Problem and Purpose
• Was the problem statement clearly stated?
• Was the purpose of the research clearly supported?
• Was the relationship between the independent and dependent variables clearly stated?
• Does the purpose of the research have significance for Nursing?
B. Research design
• Was the most rigorous possible design used, given the purpose of the research?
• Were appropriate comparisons made to enhance interpretability of the findings?
• Was the number of data collection points appropriate?
• Did the design minimize biases and threats to the internal and external validity of the study (e.g., was blinding used, was attrition minimized)?
• What kind of design was utilized? Be precise.
C. Population and sample
• Was the population identified and described? Was the sample described in sufficient detail?
• Was the best possible sampling design used to enhance the sample’s representativeness? Were sample biases minimized?
• Was the sample size adequate? Was a power analysis used to estimate sample size needs?